Heparin modification of calcium phosphate bone cements for VEGF functionalization.
A. Lode, A. Reinstorf, A. Bernhardt, C. Wolf-Brandstetter, U. König, M. Gelinsky
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research A 86A, 749-759 (2008)
A promising strategy to promote angiogenesis within an engineered tissue is the local and sustained delivery of an angiogenic factor by the substitute itself. Recently, we reported on functionalization of Biocement D (BioD) and several modifications of this calcium phosphate bone cement with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Maintenance of biological activity of VEGF after release from the cement was improved by modification of BioD with mineralized collagen type I (BioD/coll). However, BioD/coll composites showed a higher initial burst of VEGF release than do the unmodified BioD. In the present study, VEGF release from BioD/coll composites modified with different amounts of heparin was investigated. We found a distinct reduction of the initial burst of release by adding heparin in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the heparin modification had a positive impact on the biological activity of released VEGF. An advancement of biological properties of BioD/coll by addition of heparin was further shown by improved adhesion of endothelial cells on the cement surface. Characterization of material properties of the heparin-modified BioD/coll composites revealed a finer microstructure with smaller HA-particles and a higher specific surface area than heparin-free BioD/coll. However, higher amounts of heparin resulted in a reduced compressive strength. The rheological properties of these cement pastes have been found to be favorable for good handling particularly with regard to their clinical application.