Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with and without catalyst particles
M. H. Rümmeli, A. Bachmatiuk, F. Börrnert, F. Schäffel, I. Ibrahim, K. Cendrowski, G. Simha-Martynkova, D. Placha, E. Borowiak-Palen, G. Cuniberti, B. Büchner
Nanoscale Research Letters 6, 303 (2011)
The initial development of carbon nanotube synthesis revolved heavily around the use of 3d valence transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. More recently, noble metals (e.g. Au) and poor metals (e.g. In, Pb) have been shown to also yield carbon nanotubes. In addition, various ceramics and semiconductors can serve as catalytic particles suitable for tube formation and in some cases hybrid metal/metal oxide systems are possible. All-carbon systems for carbon nanotube growth without any catalytic particles have also been demonstrated. These different growth systems are briefly examined in this article and serve to highlight the breadth of avenues available for carbon nanotube synthesis.