Optimizing substrate surface and catalyst conditions for high yield chemical vapor deposition grown epitaxially aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes
I. Ibrahim, A. Bachmatiuk, F. Börrnert, J. Blüher, U. Wolff, J. H. Warner, B. Büchner, G. Cuniberti, and M. H. Rümmeli
Carbon 49, 5029 (2011)
Single-crystal stable-temperature (ST)-cut quartz substrates, which have a (0 1 1 1) crystallographic plane with their surface normal lying close to 38 from the y axis ([0 1 0]), were annealed in air prior to use as a support for aligned carbon nanotube growth by chemical vapor deposition. Very smooth substrate surfaces were obtained with annealing times in the vicinity of 15 h at a temperature of 750 ¡C. These smooth surfaces are ideal for the growth of horizontally aligned SWCNTs with high spatial density, while less dense SWCNTs were obtained with less smooth surfaces. Under optimized growth conditions, only SWCNT are observed and they can grow to lengths in excess of 100 µm. Our findings suggest structural defects interfere with the growth process. A binary Fe/Co catalyst was employed to grow the nanotubes. No obvious dependence on the Fe:Co ratio is observed.