Icing temperature measurements of water on pyroelectric single crystals: Impact of experimental methods on the degree of supercooling
Phil Goldberg, Sabine Apelt, Dirk Spitzner, Richard Boucher, Erik Mehner, Hartmut Stöcker, Dirk C. Meyer, Annegret Benke, Ute Bergmann
Cold Regions Science and Technology 151 53 (2018)
In our experiments, the icing temperature of small water volumes placed on different pyroelectric single crystals (SrxBa1-xNb2O6, LiNbO3, and LiTaO3) was determined using two measurement setups: (1) the sessile droplet and (2) ring system method. In the first method, a free-standing water droplet was exposed to several external factors in the air environment. This was found to lead to higher icing temperatures compared to the second method where the water was more isolated from external factors such as evaporation. In the second method, the material of the ring system was found to be an important factor determining the freezing temperature of the enclosed water. A recommendation for the application of both methods is given, their advantages and disadvantages depending on the purpose of measurement, and their reproducibility for practical applications. In addition to this, the correlation between pyroelectricity and icing temperature, with regard to several types of internal and external factors affecting water freezing, is also discussed in the paper.