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Insight into doping efficiency of organic semiconductors from the analysis of the density of states in n-doped C$_{60}$ and ZnPc



C. Gaul, S. Hutsch, M. Schwarze, K. S. Schellhammer, F. Bussolotti, S. Kera, G. Cuniberti, K. Leo, and F. Ortmann

Nature Materials 17 439 (2018)

Doping plays a crucial role in semiconductor physics, with n-doping being controlled by the ionization energy of the impurity relative to the conduction band edge. In organic semiconductors, efficient doping is dominated by various effects that are currently not well understood. Here, we simulate and experimentally measure, with direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopy, the density of states and the Fermi level position of the prototypical materials C$_{60}$ and zinc phthalocyanine n-doped with highly efficient benzimidazoline radicals (2-Cyc-DMBI). We study the role of doping-induced gap states, and, in particular, of the difference Δ1 between the electron affinity of the undoped material and the ionization potential of its doped counterpart. We show that this parameter is critical for the generation of free carriers and influences the conductivity of the doped films. Tuning of Δ1 may provide alternative strategies to optimize the electronic properties of organic semiconductors.



doi absolute link10.1038/s41563-018-0030-8
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